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Decentralized applications DAPP

Decentralized Applications ( DAPP ) is a computer application that runs on a distributed computing system. DApps were popularized distributed technologies main books (DLT), like Ethereum Blockchain, where DApps often called smart - contracts.

DApps can be found on centralized marketplaces such as State of the DApps, Dapp.com, Holdex, DAppRadar, and CoinGecko.

The next generation Internet - Web 3.0 - will be based on decentralized technologies. The transition to Web 3.0 will be long and gradual, but solutions based on decentralized technologies - and, above all, dApps - are now entering real life.

DApp is an application that runs without a server side in a decentralized computer system, such as a blockchain.

Accordingly, dApp uses the main advantages of the blockchain: transparency, reliability and immutability of data.

More than 2,700 decentralized apps have been released as of early July 2019, according to Dapp.com. About half of them are supported by developers, and more than 150 thousand users access the dApp every day, making over 2 million transactions.

Let's take a look at the areas where dApps are most promising.

Auctions

Transparency is critical for online auctions, and the use of dApps allows us to ensure that bids remain the same and strictly record the time they were made, which eliminates the possibility of any manipulation. Therefore, online auctions are a promising segment for decentralized applications.

An example of dApp application in the field of auctions is the Auctionity platform. It works with non-fungible (unique) tokens (NFT), which allows you to create auctions and bid in real time. a decentralized application guarantees payment and delivery of lots.

Forecast Markets

Prediction markets are exchanges where the objects of trade are not goods or financial instruments, but the results of various events: from sports games to, for example, presidential elections.

The idea of ​​prediction markets is based on the fact that the stock price of a given outcome reflects its probability. For example, a price of $ 0.74 means that there is a 74% chance of the expected outcome.

In part, prediction markets resemble futures contracts, where the price of an object in the future is also something like a prediction.

The prediction market concept is used by a number of bookmakers such as Betfair. The site https://intellect.icu says about it. But unlike centralized services, decentralized sites allow anyone to create their own prediction market, not just vote on events suggested by the site itself.

An example of a decentralized prediction market is Augur, built on the Ethereum platform.

User identification

Another area of ​​application for dApps is user identification, which is becoming increasingly important as the offering of remote services such as banking expands. decentralized applications will provide secure and reliable storage of user data. Using dApp, you can, for example, provide user identification via email.

Games and gambling

One of the main problems in the online gaming segment is the lack of transparency and, as a result, users' distrust of traditional applications and online games. With dApps, you can provide complete bid transparency and secure storage of user funds.

This explains the growing popularity of gaming decentralized applications. At the beginning of July 2019, dApps from the gaming and gambling categories took the first six places in the ranking of the most popular decentralized applications.

One of the first decentralized games to gain widespread prominence is CryptoKitties, released on the Ethereum platform in late 2017. The initial interest in the game was so great that a record was set for the number of transactions on the network (although its speed dropped to almost zero).

How to create a decentralized application?

Decentralized applications are developed using smart contracts, the code of which is written in special programming languages. For example, Ethereum has the Solidity smart contract language, and the Waves blockchain platform has RIDE. You can learn the basics in the Mastering Web 3.0 online course with Waves.

The course is primarily intended for front-end developers, webmasters, full-stack developers (Node.js, PHP, Python), as well as developers of games and applications on iOS / Android. The course will be useful for both freelance developers and members of programming teams.

Participants are required to have knowledge of JavaScript and Node.js. However, those who are unfamiliar with this programming language will be able to complete special assignments and eventually take part in the course.

The course consists of five compulsory weekly lessons and one additional one. Each includes several video lectures, a quiz, and a coding assignment. The deadline for all assignments and quizzes is one week. All responses and results are recorded on the blockchain, which ensures complete transparency.

The course is maximally focused on the tasks of the real world, therefore, throughout the course, participants are working on one major project - the online platform for coupons and coupon auctions "Coupon Bazaar".

Specifications

DApps backend code runs on a decentralized peer-to-peer network, unlike typical applications where the backend code runs on centralized servers. A DApp can have front-end code and user interfaces written in any language that can call its back-end. In addition, its interface can be hosted on a decentralized storage like Swarm or IPFS.

DApps are generally open source, decentralized, incentivized by providing tokens to those who validate the DApp, and following a specific protocol agreed in the community.

DApps (decentralized applications) are decentralized server- client applications that run on decentralized systems like Ethereum or Ethereum Classic. A feature of the work of decentralized systems is that in such systems, each node of the system (computer) performs calculations, in contrast to centralized and distributed systems.

Decentralized applications must meet the following requirements

  1. They must be self-contained and open source. This means that any change in the code is possible only with the consent of all system participants and is impossible on the initiative of one system participant who owns most of the system tokens.
  2. Work protocols and data are decentralized and encrypted in the blockchain.
  3. Cryptographic tokens are used to reward network users and to access the network.
  4. Tokens are generated using an algorithm that encourages users to contribute to the system.

Deployment

DApps can run on top of distributed computing systems like Ethereum or Bitcoin. Decentralized applications are stored and executed on the blockchain system. Steem created a well-established ecosystem that led to widespread adoption of DApp development. There are a large number of DApps that perform well in various industries. Examples: Steem Monsters, dMania, Steemblr, Musing, SteemHunt, etc.

Adoption

DApps have been criticized for being inaccessible to the average user. Many DApps struggle to acquire users, especially during their founding stage, and even those that attract broad initial popularity struggle to maintain it. A prime example is DApp CryptoKitties, which crashed the Ethereum network at its peak. CryptoKitties and another similar gaming DApp, Dice Games, have failed to gain such popularity since then.

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers held conferences on DApps in 2019 and 2020

Examples of

  • Augur - market prediction platform
  • Cryptokitties is an Ethereum based game. This slowed down Ethereum due to insufficient transaction processing and revealed the scaling limitations of public blockchains.
  • Blockstack is a platform for developing decentralized applications.
  • Freelance is a smart contract platform.
  • Steem - Based on blockchain technology, publishers are rewarded with cryptocurrency.

DApps directories

  • The Dapp Store is a directory of popular decentralized applications. With the Dapp Store, users can access over a thousand Ethereum DApps.
  • State of the DApps is a non - profit organization , a directory of decentralized projects built on the Ethereum blockchain.
  • DappRadar is a platform that provides information about all DApps. Dapps can be sorted by many different metrics, daily users, daily volume, and the like.

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Highly loaded projects. Theory of parallel computing. Supercomputers. Distributed systems

Термины: Highly loaded projects. Theory of parallel computing. Supercomputers. Distributed systems