NEUROBIOLOGY DECISION-MAKING Introduction

Lecture

The current synthesis of economics, psychology and neuroscience in
within the framework of the new discipline - neuroeconomics, as well as the development of the newest neuroimaging techniques
The method promises the emergence of a new interdisciplinary model explaining the mechanisms for adopting
making. The results of neuroeconomic studies demonstrate that decision making is about
arranged by work on independent neuronal systems of the brain, selected by
natural selection. The interaction of “cognitive” and “emotional” neuronal mechanisms
MOV decision-making determines the degree of rationality of human behavior.
Keywords: neuroeconomics, neurobiology, decision making, social influence, time
variable discounting, moral dilemma, functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Most of us consider habit
reflect on the consequences of our actions
terribly boring ... sometimes to death.
Bertrand russell
In 1961, an epilepsy patient, WJ, underwent the famous dissection operation.
corpus callosum (commissure connecting the hemispheres of the brain), which led to
dividing the brain into two independent hemispheres (Gazzaniga, 2005). In the patient's behavior
unusual features appeared: sometimes his hands competed with each other when performing
assignments. For example, when the subject had to, following the instructions, assemble
the proposed design, using a set of colored cubes, his right hand is
I tried to change the combination that the left had collected before. In medical practice
ticking is known a similar phenomenon, called “another’s hand syndrome,” a rare disease
occurring, for example, in patients with neurodegenerative disorders of the brain
ha and expressed in involuntary conflicting hands activity, as if by movements
the patient is controlled by external force. So, one such patient had to
to brake the car when his left hand involuntarily and chaotically began to grab hold of
steering wheel while driving; another patient exclaimed, fearing that
free action of his hand: “Stop this monster! This hand will kill me! ”(Leiguarda
et al., 1993). The above curious clinical observations are most clearly illustrative.
lyustrut dominant in neuroscience views on human behavior and mechanisms
We make decisions based on the idea of ​​independent neuronal
systems of the brain, selected by natural selection and existing pa-
parallel to the human nervous system.
The advances in neuroscience of recent years have made it possible to get closer to understanding
biological bases of decision making. More recently, a new interdis
The disciplinary field of neurobiology is neuroeconomics (Glimcher and Rustichini, 2004).
She combined neurobiology, economics, psychology and a number of other disciplines
plin, knowledge of which formed the basis of new ideas about decision-making mechanisms
and allowed to successfully simulate the behavior of humans and animals. Originated on
science, neuroeconomics in a broad sense is the neurobiology of decision-making
decision neuroscience (Rilling et al., 2008).
At the first stage of its development, neuroeconomic studies will concentrate
based on the study of the neurobiological mechanisms of the simplest (perceptual) solutions
on the nature of irrationality, for example, on the causes of stronger emotional
loss response versus acquisitions (loss aversion)
(Tom et al., 2007). Temporary discounting has also been studied extensively (temporal
discounting) - disproportionate preference for immediate remuneration relative
deferred in time (McClure et al., 2004). Later into the orbit of neuroeconomic
research has come up with studies of the brain mechanisms for determining the subjective
utility (subjective utility) in the selection process of possible alternatives, research
how the brain takes risks into account when making financial decisions, and research
consumer behavior (Knutson et al., 2005; Kuhnen, Knutson, 2005), including perceptions
prices and advertising (Klucharev et al., 2008; Plassmann et al., 2008). Unfortunately in the present
the review is not possible to cover all areas of research neuroeconomic
miki. Therefore, first of all we will focus on studies of the duality of
decision making khanizm. Our goal is to show that irrational behavior, i.e.
a conduct that does not fit into traditional normative economic theories is
result of evolutionary selection, enshrined in the structure and functions of the neuronal
nets of our brain.
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NEUROECONOMICS

Terms: NEUROECONOMICS